and the Drug Propaganda: Phoinikeia
The Egyptian name for their hieroglyphs, originally used only for sacral
purposes, was 'speech of the gods.' We have 8,000 year-old stamp seals
from Macedonia designed to leave their geometric impressions in wet
clay, that is, moveable type. We also have Macedonian cylinder seals,
that is, cylinders designed to be rolled over the wet clay. This script
is found only on figurines, thrones, temple models, altars, communion
vases, sacred bread models, pendants, plaques and spindle whorls found
in temples. Its purpose was to trigger magical communication, automatic
speech, not accounting. Spindle whorls were often used as temple ornaments
since the Goddess, like the Spider, the Wasp and the Bee, was a weaver
of, and carried the sting of, magical plants. Below is a Queen's pendant,
Knossos, c.2000 BC.
The 'sacral' ivy-leaf, a standard device of Cretan potters for millennia,
became a letter in both Linear A and B. Gimbutas, organizing linguistic
work that began with Evans, has graphed 68 Old European signs that can
be shown to be identical to either Cretan Linear A or Classical Cypriot
syllabic phonemes, the two great island survivals of this Old European,
pre-Indo-European, language. Classical Cypriot is deciphered, Linear
A only fragmentarily. This script, which predates the earliest evolved
temple-palace script of Old Sumer by 2000 years, isn't a bureaucratic
device designed to manage the tax rolls, as in Sumer, but magical script,
produced only on religious items. The Near Eastern scripts, of course,
also originated in their predecessor Neolithic communities, thus the
evolution is contemporaneous.
Both the Greek and Hebrew alphabets were immediately derived from their
great Phoenician trading partners, and Phoenician was immediately derived
from Ugaritic. In fact Ugarit was discovered, in 1928, when a Syrian
farmer plowed into a Mycenaean Greek tomb. Although it is 'alphabetic,'
that is, phonetically pictographic, the 22-letter Phoenician alphabet
is an exact match of its 27-letter cuneiform Ugaritic mother, after
the extra five phonemes, which converged with other Phoenician sounds,
are eliminated. Hebrew coincides exactly with Phoenician, in the same
order, and Greek almost exactly:aleph, beth, gimel, daleth:alpha, beta,
gamma, delta:ox, house, camel, door. From Phoenician, or, as they used
to be called, 'Moabite' phonemes, developed not only Greek, Hebrew and
Aramaic, but Latin, Arabic, Ethiopic, Cyrillic and, ultimately, the
written forms of all Western and Semitic languages. In fact a,b,d,h,k,l,m,n,p,q,r,t
in English are in the same order as in Ugaritic.
Phoenicia's great trading center of Ugarit left behind a wealth of
diplomatic, commercial and liturgical archives on clay tablets, written
in the alphabetic cuneiform called Ugaritic. Other scripts found include
Cypro-Minoan Linear A, Mycenaean Linear B, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Hurrian
(Mitannian-Syrian) cuneiform and Hittite hieroglyphs.
Tablets with Akkadian syllabic cuneiform, the diplomatic lingua franca
used by all the powers, were also found in great abundance. Since we
have their vocabulary lists, we know that advanced scribes had to qualify
in four languages, including the ancient Sumerian, from which Akkadian
was derived. The commercial motivation to simplify this confusing array
of scripts was very strong.
The two main Ugaritic scripts were the diplomatic Akkadian and the
more common everyday Ugaritic, both 'cuneiform,' that is, 'wedge-shaped'
simplified pictographs. They were inscribed with a stylus on clay. In
use for thousands of years, these proto-syllables took on completely
abstract phonetic values, and were thus transferable from one language
- Sumerian, Akkadian, Ugaritic - to another.
An inherent conceptual advantage of Egyptian writing was that it was
painted on papyrus paper, not gouged into clay. The scribes below were
immortalized in limestone c.1350 BC.
Ba'al's mother was Ba'alat, the Lady, the Mistress, called Hathor,
the Horned Mother, by the Egyptians, Lady of the Turquoise. She was
worshipped in the southern Sinai in 1500 BC by the Egyptians and the
Semitic turquoise miners they employed. It is here that the earliest
Proto-Sinaitic inscriptions, Hebrew phonemes derived from pictures,
are found. This is a Semitic extrapolation of a linguistic advance already
made by the Egyptians and the Akkadians. Thus the oval, ro, 'mouth'
in Egyptian, stood for 'r'; zt, 'snake,' for 'z'; and the rectangle,
shy, 'lake,' for 'sh.' These phonetic pictographs were combined to form
completely abstract words.
Phoenician, the great trading language, itself is partly derived from
its Egyptian, Cretan, Akkadian and Hittite-Luvian (Anatolian) trading
partners. Early Egyptian pictographs themselves were heavily influenced
by those of its trading partners, Sumer and Crete. And Egyptian, Cretan
and Sumerian, moreover, are derived from their magical Neolithic mothers.
Greek, an Indo-European language, and Hebrew, a Semitic language, thus
have common ancestors not only in Phoenician, a Semitic language, but
in Hittite pictographic and cuneiform, an Indo-European language; Akkadian
cuneiform, an originary Semitic language; Egyptian pictographic and
phonetic, a Hamitic language; Sumerian cuneiform, a Semitic-influenced
Ural-Altaic language; and Cretan, an Old European language.
The definitions, therefore, of 'Semitic' and 'Indo-European,' are,
evolutionarily, artificial boundaries, since cultural contact was contiguous
and intense. The distinction between English and Greek is also artificial,
since much English is in fact Greek, and much Greek is in fact Sumerian,
Egyptian, Akkadian, Cretan or Hittite-Luvian.
'Etymology' in Greek means 'the logos of the truth,' from etymos, 'true.'
By tracing the original meaning of a word we contact the archetypal
picture, the unconscious content or bio-historical truth connected to
the earth, our automatic selves. The Egyptian hieroglyph for 'King'
is a beautifully drawn bee, thus indicting that it was originally the
hieroglyph for 'Queen.' There are no king bees, as Egyptian beekeepers
knew perfectly well.
Historein, 'history,' is a combination of histor, 'to
judge or measure,' and idein, 'to see or apprehend.' The Greeks
understood etymology as history: phoinikeia, 'phonemes,' 'letters,'
literally means 'Phoenicians.' Herodotus: "These Phoenicians who came
with Cadmus...brought to Greece, when they settled in it, various matters
of learning and, very notably, the alphabet, which, in my opinion, had
not been known to the Greeks before..."
Cadmus is the legendary founder of Mycenaean Thebes. The Mycenaean
Greeks, Homer's Danaans, and the Welsh are related via the Tuatha de
Danaan, the 'People of the Goddess Danae,' Mycenaean settlers of Denmark
and Britain, c.1500 BC. 'Denmark' is 'the Kingdom of the Danaans.' The
eldest of the Danaid priestesses, Albina, 'The White Goddess,' gave
her name to Albion, as Britain was called by the ancients. This is the
same Druidic Albion that imported Egyptian beads from Akhenaten's capitol
city into Salisbury Plain, along with the Egyptian astronomical sophistication
evident at Stonehenge. The floating mushrooms, below, were engraved
on stone #53 by Stonehenge's builders. The Rillaton gold cup, c.1450
BC, taken from a chief's grave in Cornwall, is virtually identical to
the gold cups taken from the shaft graves at Mycenae. The Celtic Arianrhod
was the Mycenaean/Cretan Ariadne.
Over the centuries Britain was visited with numerous Greek immigrations,
including that of the Milesians, who hit Ireland in about 1250 BC. As
Apollodorus put it, Iason, 'the man of the drug,' "built a ship of fifty
oars named Argo after its builder; and at the prow Athena fitted in
a speaking timber from the oak of Dodona." 'Oak' is drys in Greek, derwen
in Welsh, dur in Gaelic. The Gaelic plural duir, derwydd in Welsh, 'Druid,'
means 'oak-seer.' The Druids buried their dead in oak boats, like the
one described by Apollodorus. Odysseus was a Druid: "The man himself
had gone up to Dodona/to ask the spelling leaves of the old oak/what
Zeus would have him do - how to return to Ithaka/after so many years
- by stealth or openly."(Od:19:290)
In all Celtic languages, trees means letters; to cast
a spell thus had pharmaco-shamanic as well as phonetic implications.
That is, the Druidic, the Cadmean letters that the Mycenaeans brought
with them in their oak boats, were the spelling letters of the leaves.
The Druidic mysteries, which could be communicated alphabetically, consisted
largely of the correct use of the various berries, leaves, barks, saps
and woods in the appropriate season. That was the alphabet taught to
Cadmus by the Queen Bee.